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The Monitoring Sub-unit forms part of the Water Group at GCS. All monitoring projects are tailored to meet the water quality monitoring requirements of our clients.


  • Water quality monitoring of surface water and groundwater
  • Microbiological monitoring of surface water and groundwater
  • Groundwater level monitoring
  • Bio-monitoring

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According to the DWAF Best Practice Guideline G3, the objectives of water monitoring programmes are:

  • Facilitation of decision making, serving as an early warning system for remedial measures or actions
  • Generation of baseline/background data before project implementation
  • Identification of the sources and extent of pollution (identifying illegal implications of the risks associated with the contamination)
  • Monitoring of water usage by different users, thereby controlling costs and maximising water reuse
  • To assist in the calibration and verification of various prediction and assessment models
  • Identification and design of appropriate water treatment technology
  • Evaluation and auditing of the success of implemented management systems (ISO 14000)
  • Assessment of compliance with standards and legislation (EMPs, Water Use Licences)
  • Assessment of impact on receiving water environment


Groundwater level monitoring and collection of water samples is carried out by trained technical personnel in accordance with SANAS standards. SANAS accredited laboratories are used to analyse samples.

Continuous monitoring is available for borehole water levels, conductivity and rainfall and flow volumes.

Monitoring data is interpreted with respect to EMPs, water use licences and other compliance objectives. The results of water quality monitoring are illustrated using graphs and site maps to ensure that our clients are fully aware of all water quality issues. The results, interpretation and recommendations are presented in monthly, quarterly or annual reports.

GCS is currently involved in water quality monitoring for the mining and a number of other industries in the Gauteng, Northern Province, Kwazulu-Natal and Mpumalanga regions.

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The assessment of biota in rivers is a widely recognised means of determining the condition or health of rivers. Benthic macroinvertebrates, in particular, are recognised as valuable organisms for bio assessments, due largely to their visibility to the naked eye, ease of identification, rapid life cycle often based on the seasons and their largely sedentary habits.

Biomonitoring is usually performed in a river, upstream and downstream of a proposed impact. The difference in macroinvertebrate assemblages can then be determine as an effect of the pollution. By conducting biomonitoring on a biannual basis, one will be also be able to identify seasonal trends.

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2007-2014Anglo AmericanDer Brochen Mine Site (Greenfields)
2007-2015Anglo AmericanMototolo Concentrator JV
2010-2014Total Coal South AfricaDorstfontein Coal Mine
2010-2014Total Coal South AfricaForzando Coal Mine
2009-2014Northam PlatinumBooysendal Mine
2013-2015Letseng DiamondsLetseng Mine (Lesotho)
2003-2015Glencore OperationsBoshoek Smelter
2012-2015RioTintoZululand Anthracite Colliery
2010-2015Northam PlatinumBooysendal Platinum Mine
2012-2013Forbes CoalDundee Operation
2013-2014Kangra CoalMaquasa and Panbult Siding
2013-2014Sibanye GoldBeatrix Mine
2011-2015ACSAKing Shaka International Airport